By Scott Gerwehr
A space of strength vulnerability for U.S. forces in the course of city operations is the necessity to face an adversary's use of deception. considerably, deception can be a space of significant capability gain if hired successfully through U.S. forces as a center element of info operations. It concludes that deception is altered in shape and abetted in functionality by means of the city surroundings. This interrelationship among city terrain and deception has 6 basic features. The 6 elements characterize a substantial drawback while dealing with adversary deception in built-up parts yet is usually an exceptional support to U.S. forces engaging in deception in help of city operations. those findings shape the foundation of ongoing cork to enhance U.S. features for countering/employing deception in destiny city operations.
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Additional info for The Art of Darkness: Deception and Urban Operations
Identification of friend or foe (IFF) is a nontrivial challenge; units frequently become disoriented and confused. Operational tempo is usually high (particularly in combat missions), substantially reducing the time frame of decisionmaking. The poor decisions that sometimes result can lead to a catastrophic worsening of an already difficult problem, as noted by McLaurin and Snider (1982, p. 20) in their discussion of the fighting in Suez City during the 1973 Arab-Israeli conflict: The result of the surprise at the Arba’in Junction was disastrous for the attacking IDF [Israeli Defense Forces].
The objective) and from that derives the target of the deception, the target’s desired response, the requisite misperception, and the “story” that needs to be told. In deception plans, the ends dictate the means. This is illustrated in Figure 1. The actual execution of the deception planning process moves in the reverse direction: informational elements being manipulated are transmitted (or obscured), creating the story, in the mind of the target(s), to achieve the objective. A simple historical example will serve to illustrate the process: • Facing German submarine warfare prior to World War I, Winston Churchill sought to confuse and entrap German submarines (the objective).
26 The Art of Darkness: Deception and Urban Operations Deception can be a powerful force multiplier for leaders at all levels of war. As these examples hopefully demonstrate, no side automatically owns a monopoly on the use of deception, and all sides should be prepared to counter it. HOW IS DECEPTION EMPLOYED? The Contextual Requirements of Deception Deception cannot and should not occur in a vacuum. The setting necessary for the conduct of deception can be characterized by the following features.