An Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations by C. R. Scott B.A., M.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. (auth.)

By C. R. Scott B.A., M.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. (auth.)

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2 Typical relationship between S, and X· Thus, although x is mainly dependent on the degree of saturation (S,), it is also influenced by other factors, such as the soil structure and the processes of wetting and drying by which the present degree of saturation has been reached. Fig. 2 shows a typical relationship between the degree of saturation and X· It follows that the determination of the effective stress in a partially saturated soil is not a simple matter. Moreover, there is evidence that the values of x (and therefore the values of the effective stresses) are not exactly the same in respect of shear strength and of compressibility.

The reduction in the ion content of the soil water has resulted in a considerable increase in the thickness of the adsorbed layers surrounding the particles. If the soil is disturbed, so that the flocculated structure is broken up, the particles tend to take up a dispersed arrangement. In this condition, the soil flows, since the water content exceeds the liquid limit. 6]. 2. 11 SKEMPTON, A. W. and NoRTHEY, R. D. 1952. The sensitivity of clays. Geotechnique, 3. GRIM, R. E. 1949. Mineralogical composition in relation to the properties of certain soils.

36 Factors affecting compaction: Compaction is measured in terms of the dry density achieved. This is found to be a function of (a) the water content (b) the compactive effort applied to the soil, and (c) the nature of the soil. 37 The British Standard compaction tests: In these tests, a sample of soil is compacted, using a standard compactive effort, into a mould whose volume is 9·44 x I 0- 4 m 3 {a\i- ft 3 ). The soil in the mould is weighed, the water content is measured, and from these measurements the dry density of the soil is calculated.

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