A Semantic Web primer by G Antoniou, Frank Van Harmelen

By G Antoniou, Frank Van Harmelen

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3 Structuring 37 • #FIXED "value". Every element must have this attribute, which has always the value given after #FIXED in the DTD. A value given in an XML document is meaningless because it is overridden by the fixed value. • "value". This specifies the default value for the attribute. If a specific value appears in the XML document, it overrides the default value. For example, the default encoding of the e-mail system may be “mime”, but “binhex” will be used if specified explicitly by the user. Referencing Here is an example for the use of IDREF and IDREFS.

6 Summary • The Semantic Web is an initiative that aims at improving the current state of the World Wide Web. • The key idea is the use of machine-processable Web information. • Key technologies include explicit metadata, ontologies, logic and inferencing, and intelligent agents. • The development of the Semantic Web proceeds in layers. 5 was adapted. • T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, and O. Lassila. The Semantic Web. Scientific American 284 (May 2001): 34–43. An inspirational book about the history (and the future) of the Web is • T.

1 Structured Web Documents: XML Introduction Today HTML (hypertext markup language) is the standard language in which Web pages are written. HTML, in turn, was derived from SGML (standard generalized markup language), an international standard (ISO 8879) for the definition of device- and system-independent methods of representing information, both human- and machine-readable. Such standards are important because they enable effective communication, thus supporting technological progress and business collaboration.

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